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Bitcoin Glossary

DALL·E 2024-01-01 19.37.58 - Create a hyper-realistic image featuring the provided Bitcoin

Understanding Bitcoin terminology 

51 Percent Attack: This is a potential attack on the Bitcoin network where an entity gains control of more than 50% of the network's mining power. With such control, the entity could theoretically prevent new transactions from gaining confirmations, allowing them to halt payments between some or all users. They could also reverse transactions that were completed while they controlled the network, leading to double-spending.

Address / Bitcoin Address: A Bitcoin address is a string of letters and numbers that represents a destination for a Bitcoin payment. Similar to an email address, it is used to send and receive Bitcoin and can be shared publicly. Each address is unique and typically represents a hash of a public key.

AML (Anti-Money Laundering): AML refers to a set of laws, regulations, and procedures intended to prevent individuals from disguising illegally obtained funds as legitimate income. In the context of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, AML regulations are significant for exchanges and financial services, requiring them to conduct due diligence on their customers.

ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit): ASICs are specialised hardware designed specifically for Bitcoin mining. They are optimised to solve the Bitcoin hashing algorithm (SHA-256) efficiently, making them more effective than general-purpose hardware for mining activities.

Atomic Swap: This is a smart contract technology that enables the exchange of one cryptocurrency for another without using centralised intermediaries. It allows for direct wallet-to-wallet trading, increasing the decentralisation and reducing reliance on third-party exchanges.

Austrian School of Economics: A school of economic thought that emphasises the spontaneous ordering processes in the market and criticises centralized economic planning. Its principles have influenced some of the ideological and economic underpinnings of Bitcoin, particularly regarding notions of decentralisation and scepticism of central banking.


Batching: In Bitcoin, batching refers to the practice of combining multiple transactions into one. This reduces the blockchain space used and hence the transaction fees, making it a cost-effective way of processing payments.

BIP (Bitcoin Improvement Proposal): BIPs are standard proposals for changes and improvements to the Bitcoin protocol. They are a key mechanism for evolving the network, involving peer review and discussion in the developer community.

Bitcoin Client: This software enables users to interact with the Bitcoin network. It handles the creation, transmission, and receipt of transactions. Bitcoin Core, the original and most widely used client, validates transactions and blocks, providing increased security to its users.

Bitcoin Core: The original Bitcoin client, which is open-source and serves as the reference implementation for the Bitcoin protocol. It plays a critical role in the development, maintenance, and evolution of the Bitcoin network.

Bitcoin Network: The network of computers that run the Bitcoin software and participate in validating and relaying Bitcoin transactions, as well as maintaining the blockchain.

Block: A block is a record in the Bitcoin blockchain that contains and confirms many waiting transactions. Roughly every ten minutes, a new block is created and added to the blockchain through the mining process.

Block Header: Part of the Bitcoin block, the block header includes important information like the reference to the previous block, a timestamp, and a cryptographic hash, making each block unique and securely linked in the blockchain.

Blockchain: A continuously growing list of records (blocks), which are linked and secured using cryptography. In the context of Bitcoin, the blockchain serves as a public ledger of all transactions, ensuring the integrity and chronological order of transactions.

Block Height: This refers to the number of blocks in the blockchain preceding a particular block, indicating the length of the blockchain. It's used to measure the maturity and size of the network.

Block Reward: The reward that miners receive for successfully adding a new block to the blockchain. It consists of newly created bitcoins and transaction fees from the transactions included in the block.

BTC: The commonly used ticker symbol for Bitcoin. It's used on trading platforms and financial discussions to represent the digital currency.

Bubble: In financial contexts, a bubble is characterised by a rapid escalation of asset prices followed by a contraction. It often describes a situation where the price of an asset, like Bitcoin, significantly exceeds its fundamental value, driven by speculative buying.

Chain Reorganisation: This occurs when a Bitcoin node replaces a part of its blockchain with a different version, usually because it has found a longer blockchain that is considered more valid. It can result in previously accepted blocks becoming "orphaned."

Coinbase Transaction: The first transaction in a Bitcoin block, created by the miner. It includes the block reward and transaction fees, introducing new bitcoins into circulation.

CoinJoin: CoinJoin enhances privacy by making it difficult to determine which inputs (sources of Bitcoin) correspond to which outputs (destinations). It's a collaborative approach where users can merge their transactions into one larger transaction, increasing anonymity without needing to trust a central party.


Cryptography: Cryptography in Bitcoin involves secure communication techniques based on mathematical principles. It is used for securing transactions, encrypting messages, and managing the creation of new units of the currency. Bitcoin relies heavily on cryptographic algorithms for its security and decentralised nature.

DCA (Dollar-Cost Averaging): This investment strategy involves regularly buying a fixed dollar amount of an asset (such as Bitcoin), regardless of its price at the time of purchase. This approach can minimise the impact of volatility and reduce the risk of investing a large amount at an unfavourable time.

DAO (Decentralised Autonomous Organization): DAOs are organisations that run autonomously on a blockchain through smart contracts. They operate without centralized control, with rules encoded into the blockchain, leading to transparent and democratic decision-making processes.

DEX (Decentralised Exchange): DEXs are platforms that facilitate cryptocurrency trading without a central authority. They operate using smart contracts on a blockchain, allowing users to trade directly from their wallets, maintaining control over their private keys.

Difficulty: In Bitcoin, difficulty refers to how hard it is for miners to find a new block. It adjusts periodically to ensure a consistent block time, which is critical for the network's stability and security.

Digital Signature: A digital signature in Bitcoin provides a secure way of proving ownership of a transaction. It's generated using a private key and can be verified with the corresponding public key, ensuring the authenticity and integrity of a transaction.

Distributed Ledger: A distributed ledger is a database that is spread across several nodes or locations. In the context of Bitcoin, the blockchain is a distributed ledger that records all transactions across the network, ensuring transparency and security.

Double Spend: A double spend occurs when someone tries to send the same Bitcoin to two different recipients at the same time. Bitcoin's consensus mechanism prevents this by ensuring that each transaction is verified and recorded in a single, immutable ledger.

Dust: In Bitcoin, dust refers to a very small amount of Bitcoin, often left as remnants from transactions. These amounts are so small that they are not worth spending due to the transaction fees exceeding the value of the dust itself.

DYOR (Do Your Own Research): A common phrase in the cryptocurrency community, DYOR encourages individuals to thoroughly research and understand a cryptocurrency, technology, or investment opportunity before committing to it.

Exchange: In the context of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, an exchange is a platform where users can buy, sell, or trade bitcoins and other digital currencies. Exchanges can be centralised (managed by a single company) or decentralized (peer-to-peer).

Fiat: Fiat currency refers to government-issued currency that is not backed by a physical commodity, such as gold. In the Bitcoin community, fiat is often used to contrast with cryptocurrencies, which are not issued or controlled by any central authority.

Flippening: A term used within the cryptocurrency community, originally referring to the hypothetical event where Ethereum's market capitalisation would surpass that of Bitcoin. It's sometimes used more broadly to discuss the potential of any cryptocurrency overtaking Bitcoin in market cap.

FOMO (Fear Of Missing Out): This term describes the anxiety of missing out on a potentially profitable investment or trend. In the context of Bitcoin, FOMO often drives speculative buying when the price is rising rapidly.

Fork: In Bitcoin, a fork refers to a change in the protocol that creates a divergence in the blockchain. Forks can be 'hard' (non-backwards compatible) or 'soft' (backwards compatible). They are used to introduce new features or correct security issues.

FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt): FUD is a term used to describe the spreading of misinformation or unfounded negative sentiment, typically used to manipulate the market or perception of a particular cryptocurrency like Bitcoin.

Genesis Block: The first block of the Bitcoin blockchain, created by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009. It marks the beginning of the Bitcoin network and has a unique status within the blockchain.

GPU (Graphics Processing Unit): In the early days of Bitcoin, GPUs were used for mining due to their efficiency in processing the cryptographic calculations required for mining. However, they have largely been superseded by more specialised hardware like ASICs.

Halving (or “Halvening”): This event occurs every 210,000 blocks in the Bitcoin network and halves the block reward given to miners. It's a significant event that reduces the rate at which new bitcoins are generated and introduced into circulation.


Hard Fork: A hard fork is a significant change to the Bitcoin network's protocol that makes previously invalid blocks or transactions valid. This type of fork requires all nodes or users to upgrade to the latest version of the protocol software. Hard forks result in a permanent divergence from the previous version of the blockchain, adding a new rule set to the network.

Hash: In Bitcoin, a hash refers to the output produced by a hash function (like SHA-256). It's a unique identifier for data, used in Bitcoin's proof-of-work consensus mechanism. Hashes play a crucial role in securing the blockchain and validating new transactions.

Hash Rate: This term refers to the total combined computational power used to mine and process transactions on the Bitcoin network. A higher hash rate means greater security and efficiency in processing transactions.

HODL: Originally a misspelled version of "hold," HODL has become a term used in the Bitcoin community to describe the action of holding onto Bitcoin as a long-term investment, despite price volatility or market swings.

Hyperbitcoinisation: A theoretical scenario where Bitcoin surpasses global fiat currencies as the dominant form of money. It's a vision of a future in which Bitcoin is widely adopted and becomes the main medium of exchange and store of value.

Immutable: In the context of Bitcoin, immutability refers to the characteristic that once data (like transactions) has been added to the blockchain, it cannot be altered or deleted. This ensures the integrity and permanence of the transaction history.

Inflation: Within the Bitcoin network, inflation refers to the increase in the number of bitcoins in circulation. This occurs through the mining process, though the rate of inflation decreases over time due to the halving events.

Initial Block Download (IBD): The process by which a new node synchronises with the Bitcoin network by downloading the entire blockchain history. This is necessary for the node to validate transactions and blocks correctly.

Intrinsic Value: The inherent worth of an asset, not determined by external factors. In the context of Bitcoin, intrinsic value can refer to its qualities as a decentralised digital currency, free from government control.

KYC (Know Your Customer): A regulatory compliance requirement for businesses, especially in the financial sector, to verify the identity of their clients. In Bitcoin exchanges and financial services, KYC procedures help prevent money laundering and fraudulent activities.

Layer 2: This term refers to secondary frameworks or protocols built on top of an existing blockchain (like Bitcoin). Layer 2 solutions, such as the Lightning Network, aim to address scalability issues by handling transactions off the main blockchain.

Light Client: A type of Bitcoin wallet that does not store the entire blockchain but instead relies on other nodes for transaction and balance information. Light clients offer a balance between security and resource efficiency.

Lightning Network: An off-chain, Layer 2 payment protocol operating on top of the Bitcoin blockchain. It enables faster and more cost-effective transactions by allowing users to create payment channels between any two parties on the network.

Margin Trading: A trading method in which an investor borrows funds to trade an asset like Bitcoin. Margin trading allows for greater potential profits but also comes with increased risks, including the possibility of losing more than the initial investment.

Market Depth: A measure of the supply and demand for Bitcoin on an exchange, represented by the order book. It shows the quantity of buy and sell orders at different price levels.

Mempool (Memory Pool): The mempool is where all valid transactions wait to be confirmed by the Bitcoin network. A transaction remains in the mempool until a miner includes it in a block.

Miner: In the Bitcoin network, a miner is an individual or entity that uses computational power to mine new blocks, process transactions, and maintain the network's security.

Mining: The process by which transactions are verified and added to the Bitcoin blockchain. Mining involves solving complex mathematical puzzles, which in turn adds security to the network and introduces new bitcoins into circulation.


Mining Difficulty

Mining difficulty ensures the stability of cryptocurrency issuance times, particularly in systems like Bitcoin that use a proof-of-work mechanism. Essentially, this difficulty adjusts to maintain a consistent ten-minute interval for discovering new blocks. Set by Bitcoin's original coding by Satoshi Nakamoto, it guarantees that miners need to solve increasingly complex cryptographic puzzles to validate transactions. Every two weeks, the network recalibrates this difficulty based on total mining power, ensuring that new blocks meet the precise standards set by the network, promoting fair consensus and security within the decentralized system.

Mining Pool: A collection of Bitcoin miners who combine their computational resources to increase their chances of successfully mining blocks. Rewards are then distributed among pool members based on the amount of work each contributed.

Mixer (or Tumbler): A service that improves the privacy of Bitcoin transactions by mixing the coins of multiple parties. This makes it harder to trace the origins of the funds, increasing anonymity.

Mt. Gox: Once the largest Bitcoin exchange, Mt. Gox collapsed in 2014 after a massive hack resulted in the loss of 850,000 bitcoins. The incident was pivotal in Bitcoin's history, highlighting the importance of security in digital asset exchanges.

Multisignature (Multisig): In Bitcoin, a multisig address requires more than one private key to authorise a transaction. This provides enhanced security, as it requires multiple parties to agree on transactions before they can be executed. It's commonly used for shared control of funds and increased protection against theft or loss.

NFT (Non-Fungible Token): Although primarily associated with platforms like Ethereum, NFTs can also exist on Bitcoin, especially through Layer 2 solutions. NFTs on Bitcoin represent unique, non-interchangeable tokens, often used to signify ownership of a specific asset or piece of digital art.

Nocoiner: A term used in the cryptocurrency community to describe someone who does not own any Bitcoin or cryptocurrencies, often implying scepticism or negativity towards the asset class.

Node: Any computer that connects to the Bitcoin network is considered a node. Full nodes validate transactions and blocks against the consensus rules of Bitcoin, playing a vital role in the network's health and decentralisation.

Nonce: In Bitcoin mining, a nonce is a number that miners adjust in their block header to produce a hash below the network's current difficulty target. Finding the correct nonce results in the creation of a new block.

Not Your Keys, Not Your Coins: A phrase commonly used in the Bitcoin community to emphasise the importance of holding the private keys to one's Bitcoin. It implies that if you do not control the private keys, you do not truly own the Bitcoin, as it could be at risk of loss or theft.

Off Chain: Transactions or processes that occur outside the Bitcoin blockchain are referred to as off-chain. These can include second-layer solutions like the Lightning Network, which help to scale the network and reduce transaction fees.

On Chain: Refers to transactions and operations that occur directly on the Bitcoin blockchain. These are recorded permanently on the network and are publicly verifiable.

OPSEC (Operations Security): In the context of Bitcoin, OPSEC refers to the practices and strategies used to protect one's personal security and privacy, especially concerning their cryptocurrency holdings, transactions, and wallet security.

Orphaned Block: A block in the Bitcoin network that is not included in the main blockchain. This can occur when two miners produce blocks at similar times, but the network eventually chooses one chain over the other.

Payment Channel: A component of Bitcoin's Layer 2 solutions, like the Lightning Network, which allows for conducting transactions off the main blockchain. Payment channels enable fast and low-cost transactions, settling the final balance on the blockchain once the channel is closed.

Peer-To-Peer (P2P): A decentralised network model where participants (peers) interact directly with each other. In Bitcoin, P2P refers to the direct exchange of information, transactions, and blocks without the need for a central server.

Precoiner: Someone who is on the verge of entering the Bitcoin space but has not yet purchased or invested in Bitcoin. This term is often used in the community to describe potential new adopters of the cryptocurrency.

Private Key: A private key in Bitcoin is a secret number that allows bitcoins to be spent. Each Bitcoin wallet contains one or more private keys, which are saved in the wallet file. The private keys are mathematically related to all Bitcoin addresses generated for the wallet.

Proof of Keys: An event in the Bitcoin community where holders are encouraged to withdraw their Bitcoin from third-party services to wallets where they control the private keys. This is done to prove possession and control over their own Bitcoins.

Proof of Work (PoW): The consensus algorithm used by Bitcoin. It requires miners to solve complex mathematical problems to validate transactions and create new blocks. PoW secures the network and ensures the integrity of the blockchain.

Protocol: In Bitcoin, the protocol refers to the set of rules that define the Bitcoin network. These rules include the way transactions are processed, how blocks are mined, and how consensus is achieved.

Public Key: A public key is derived from a private key and is used to receive Bitcoin. It's similar to an email address in that it can be shared publicly. A Bitcoin address is actually a hashed version of a public key.

Public Key Cryptography: A method of cryptography that uses pairs of keys: private keys and public keys. In Bitcoin, public key cryptography is used for creating digital signatures and for the encryption of transactions.

QR Code: A machine-readable graphical representation of data. In Bitcoin, QR codes are often used to represent a Bitcoin address or a transaction request, making it easier to share and scan addresses using mobile devices.

Rabbit Hole: In digital culture and online discourse, "rabbit hole" describes the experience of engaging with a topic that quickly grows in complexity and depth. Initially straightforward, the subject unravels into a network of related, intricate concepts, drawing the individual into an extensive and sometimes overwhelming exploration. This term is often used in contexts like cryptocurrency and blockchain, where a basic inquiry can lead to a profound, multifaceted educational journey. It reflects the captivating, often unexpected depth found in these modern technological realms.


Recovery Seed Phrase: A series of words generated by your Bitcoin wallet that provides a way to recover your Bitcoin in case of wallet loss or failure. The seed phrase needs to be kept safe and secure as it allows full access to the Bitcoin wallet and funds. It's typically a 12- or 24-word phrase that acts as a backup mechanism for wallet recovery.

Rekt: A slang term in the cryptocurrency community, derived from "wrecked," indicating a significant financial loss, especially as a result of trading or market downturns. It's often used informally to describe the situation of an investor who has experienced substantial losses in their portfolio.

Sat (BTC Denomination): Short for "satoshi," which is the smallest unit of Bitcoin, named after Bitcoin's pseudonymous creator, Satoshi Nakamoto. One satoshi equals one hundred millionth of a Bitcoin (0.00000001 BTC), enabling microtransactions and greater divisibility of the currency.

Satoshi Nakamoto: The pseudonymous person or group of people who created Bitcoin and authored its original whitepaper. Satoshi's true identity remains unknown, and they ceased public communication around 2010.

Schnorr Signature: A proposed digital signature scheme for Bitcoin, offering advantages such as improved scalability, privacy, and multisignature capabilities. It's considered a more efficient alternative to the current ECDSA signature scheme used in Bitcoin.

SegWit (Segregated Witness): A Bitcoin protocol upgrade implemented as a soft fork to increase the block size limit and improve scalability. SegWit also solves issues like transaction malleability by separating the signature data from the transaction data.

SHA-256: A cryptographic hash function used in Bitcoin's proof-of-work mechanism. It converts input data into a fixed 256-bit hash, a process fundamental to Bitcoin mining and transaction processing.

Shitcoin: A pejorative term in the cryptocurrency world, often used to describe altcoins or cryptocurrencies perceived as having little to no value, utility, or potential. It implies a skeptical or dismissive stance toward certain cryptocurrencies.

Sidechain: A separate blockchain that is attached to the main Bitcoin blockchain through a two-way peg. Sidechains allow for the experimentation with new features or rules without impacting the main Bitcoin blockchain.

Signature: In Bitcoin, a digital signature is used to prove ownership of a specific amount of Bitcoin. It's created using a private key and is verified with the corresponding public key, ensuring the authenticity of transactions.

Smart Contracts: Although more associated with platforms like Ethereum, smart contracts can also be implemented on Bitcoin, especially through Layer 2 solutions. These are self-executing contracts with the terms directly written into code, enabling automated, trustless transactions.

Soft Fork: A backward-compatible upgrade to the Bitcoin network. A soft fork tightens or adds new rules without invalidating previous blocks and transactions. It typically requires a majority of miners to upgrade and enforce the new rules.

Stale Blocks: Blocks that were successfully mined but not included in the prevailing blockchain. This can occur when two miners solve a block at the same time, but only one chain continues to be extended by subsequent blocks.

Testnet: A testing network used by developers to test new Bitcoin features or software without risking real value. Testnet Bitcoins do not hold any real-world value, allowing for safe experimentation.

To The Moon: A popular phrase in the cryptocurrency community expressing optimism about the price of Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies. It implies a belief in significant future price increases.

Transaction: In Bitcoin, a transaction is a transfer of value between Bitcoin wallets. Each transaction is digitally signed for security and then broadcast to the network, where it is verified by miners and added to the blockchain.

Transaction Fee: A fee paid to miners for processing and confirming Bitcoin transactions. Fees provide an incentive for miners to include transactions in a block and help prioritise the processing of transactions during times of high demand.

Unconfirmed Transaction: A Bitcoin transaction that has been broadcast to the network but not yet included in a block. Unconfirmed transactions are not finalised and can be at risk of double-spending.

UTXO (Unspent Transaction Output): In Bitcoin, a UTXO represents the amount of digital currency remaining after a cryptocurrency transaction is executed. The UTXO can then be used as an input in a new transaction.

UTXO Set: The complete set of all unspent transaction outputs on the Bitcoin blockchain. The UTXO set is critical for determining a wallet's balance and validating new transactions to prevent double-spending.

Virgin Bitcoin: Bitcoins that have been newly mined and have no transaction history. These are often considered more valuable in certain markets due to their clean history.

Wallet: In the context of Bitcoin, a wallet refers to software or hardware that stores your Bitcoin and allows you to send and receive it. Wallets contain private keys; losing the wallet means losing access to the Bitcoin it contains.

XBT: An alternative ticker symbol for Bitcoin, used in some financial and trading contexts. The "X" prefix denotes that Bitcoin is an international currency not tied to any particular country, similar to other global currencies like gold (XAU) and silver (XAG).

xPub (Extended Public Key): In hierarchical deterministic (HD) wallets, an xPub is a key that allows the generation of public addresses without revealing the corresponding private keys. It's used to receive funds and monitor wallet balances in a secure manner.

Zero Confirmation Transaction: Also known as an unconfirmed transaction, this refers to a Bitcoin transaction that has been transmitted to the network but has not yet been included in a block. While faster, these transactions carry a higher risk of being double-spent.

zk-SNARK (Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge): A form of zero-knowledge cryptography that allows one party to prove to another that they know a value, such as a private key, without revealing the actual information. While not a native feature of Bitcoin, zk-SNARKs are integral to some privacy-focused cryptocurrencies.

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